The Council of the European Union adopts a “joint action” against anti-personnel landmines, including a common moratorium on exports of anti-personnel landmines. The Convention received 122 signatures from countries when it was launched for signature in Ottawa, Canada, on December 3, 1997. There are currently 164 States parties.  Thirty-three countries have not signed the treaty and another has signed the treaty but has not ratified it. Among the states that have not signed the treaty is a majority of permanent members of the UN Security Council: China, the United States and Russia. In 2014, the United States said it would abide by the treaty`s provisions, with the exception of landmines used on the Korean Peninsula.  South Korea has not signed the treaty, as has North Korea, believing that the use of anti-personnel mines is essential to the defense of its territory against the other.